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Types of Lithium Batteries: Lithium Cell Chemistry

95 Published by BSLBATT Oct 14,2021

The benefits of lithium batteries have evolved and improved since their first appearance on the market in the 1990s. Today, they are essential as an energy source for all those daily products and vital in our work and professional life. Lithium batteries are also used by the car industry. This blog will delve deeper into lithium cells and their configurations, what they mean in practical applications, and how the construction of a lithium battery better aligns it to perform for specific applications.

BSLBATT is a professional lithium-ion battery manufacturer, including R&D And OEM service over 18 years, our products are qualified with ISO/CE/UL/UN38.3/ROHS/IEC standard. The company is on a mission to develops and produces advanced series “BSLBATT” (Best Solution Lithium Battery). BSLBATT Lithium products power a range of applications including, Solar-Powered Solutions, microgrid, Household energy storage, golf cart, Marine, RV, industrial battery, and more. The company offers a full range of services and high-quality products that continue to pave the way forward to a greener and more efficient future for energy storage. Various types of lithium-ion batteries for your selection!

Lithium battery types

Though “lithium-ion battery” is typically used as a general, all-encompassing term, there are actually at least a dozen different lithium-based chemistries that make up these rechargeable batteries.

Some of the most common types of lithium batteries include:

√ Lithium iron phosphate (LFP)

√ Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC)

√ Lithium cobalt oxide (LCO)

√ Lithium manganese oxide (LMO)

√ Lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA)

√ Lithium titanate (LTO)

However, BSLBATT batteries are based on LFP cells, the optimal choice for Solar-Powered Solutions, microgrid, Household energy storage, golf cart, Marine, RV, industrial applications.

Below we’ll explore these chemistries and how they play a role in making lithium-ion batteries one of the most popular choices of power for Solar-Powered Solutions, microgrid, Household energy storage, golf cart, Marine, RV, industrial.

Lithium cells are named after the chemical composition of their cathode material

Cells are constructed of several elements, including the cathode, anode, electrolyte, and membrane. (To learn more, see the Lithium cell Technology page of this website.) The biggest impact on the specs of today’s commercially available batteries is made by the chemistry of their cathode materials. That is why battery cells are named after the chemical composition of the materials used in the cathode of a lithium cell.

There are multiple cathode materials to choose from within the Li-ion technology space. The best-known active component of the cathode is cobalt, widely used in batteries for electronics and EVs. Today, battery manufacturers using cobalt are facing serious supply-chain sustainability issues (like unethical mining practices, including the use of child labor). Cobalt is frequently substituted out with iron (LFP), nickel, manganese, and aluminum.

Lithium iron phosphate is more compact and energy-dense, making it an excellent choice for use in Solar-Powered Solutions, microgrids, Household energy storage, golf cart, Marine, RV, industrial applications.

Lithium battery types

Types of Lithium Cells

In addition to the lithium cell form types, you will also need to decide if you need a lithium power cell or a lithium energy cell. A power cell is, you guessed it, designed to deliver high power. Likewise, an energy cell is designed to deliver high energy. But what exactly does that mean and how are lithium power cells and energy cells different?

Main characteristics of lithium cell chemistry types

Battery cells are mainly defined by the following:

● Specific energy (how much energy a system contains in comparison to its mass; typically expressed in watt-hours per kilogram, Wh/kg);

● Specific power (the amount of power in a given mass; typically expressed in watts per kilogram, W/kg);

● Cost (influenced by the rarity and cost of raw materials, and by technological complexity);

● Safety (risk factors, like temperature threshold for thermal runaway);

● Lifespan (the number of cycles leading to critically low decrease of capacity, usually 80% in material handling applications);

● Performance (capacity, voltage, and resistance).

For more information please click the link below: Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)

What is the difference between a power cell and an energy cell?

First, we should note that all types of cells cycle – it just varies to how deeply and how quickly See battery C ratings). Power cells are designed to deliver high current loads over a short period of time at intermittent intervals, making them ideal for use in high rate and starter applications or power tools which generate high loads/torques. Energy cells are designed to deliver sustained, continuous current over a long period of time, making them ideal for use in motive cyclic applications like scooters, e-bikes, etc. All lithium cells are good for cyclic applications – even power cells – but as noted above, the length of the cycle varies. For example, in a power tool, the user expects the tool to run for a total of an hour or so before charging, but a scooter user would not be happy if their scooter died after one hour of use.

Lithium battery types

How to configure a lithium Battery pack?

When building a lithium battery, once you have selected the type of cell you’ll be using, you will need to decide the amp-hours and voltage needed for your application. When building a pack, you’ll need to decide the amperage required for your application.

For example, if you are using a 25 amp-hour (AH) 3.2 V prismatic cell to build a 125 AH 12.8 V battery, you will need a battery pack built-in a 4S5P configuration. This means the cells need to be arranged in 4 master packs of 5 in parallel (5P), and the 4 master packs are placed in series (4S) for a total of 20 cells. The parallel connection is to increase the amp-hours, and the series connection is to increase the voltage. Learn how to connect batteries in series or parallel

The reason for different form factors in lithium cells is two-fold. One reason is that you need different sizes, shapes, and flexibility levels depending on the battery you are building. The other reason is that you may need flexibility in the capacity and voltage of your battery, and may find that building a 24 amp hour battery with many cylindrical cells better fits your need than building a battery with a fewer prismatic cell (and vice-versa).

Additionally, as noted above, the type of application needs to be considered. For example, while you could use lithium energy cells to build a starter battery, it would be wiser to use power cells as they will provide more power in this application than an energy cell would. Just like with a lead-acid battery, a lithium battery won’t last as long if you don’t use it for the intended application – cyclic, starter, or high rate.

Industrial battery manufacturer

As you can see, there are many things to take into consideration when building a lithium battery. From the application it is intended for, to physical size restrictions, down to the voltage and amp-hour requirements, understanding the lithium configuration options before you build a battery pack will help you build a better battery. If you have any questions on this topic, please feel free to contact us.

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